Upa Pada as narrated in Parasara Hora, the Bible of Astrology. The data of Parasara could be attributed to the roughly Mahabharata era.
One cannot study a horoscope by only looking at the natal chart. Padas as described in BPHS will further change the planetary effects. Essentially, the Rishi says Raja Yogas are best analysed through Pada Chart.
If one wants to do deeper research, Upa pada will be more effective.
The auspiciousness of Upa Pada will essentially determine the benevolence that the native enjoys from wife, children, family life, etc.
Natal ascendant will be the basis for calculating the Upa Pada and is also called Gauna Pada. If Upa Pada is with a benefic or as packed by a benefic, one will gain happiness through children and work. If the Upa Pada is conjoined, aspected and afflicted by a malefic, then the native may out gone married life.
It is generally understood that the Pada for the 12th or the 2nd from the Lagna is called Upa Pada. 12th from the ascendant for an odd sign and 2nd from the ascendant in for even sign.
Examples : Take an even sign, Scorpio ascendant. The second house Lord is situated 8 signs away from Sagittarius. Hence we should count 8 signs from Cancer where Jupiter is placed.
Results of 2nd from Upa Pada
If the 2nd from Upa Pada is associated with benefic, then the native will beblessed with wife and son. In case if the 2nd from Upa Pada is occupied or aspected by a malefic, there will be loss of wife. Loss of wife is expected is a debilated planet week in Shadbala is occupying 2nd from Upa Pada. Taurus as Upa Pada may give many wifes.
If the 2nd from Upa Pada is associated with a benefic, the wife will be affluent, fortunate and virtuous.
In case Saturn and Rahu conjunction is there in 2nd house, the native may lose his wife. Some way if Venus and Ketu are in the 2nd house, wife might suffer from disorder of blood, etc.
Mercury with Rahu or Ketu in 2nd house will cause disasters. Good may happen if a benefic is conjunct or aspects.
Results or effects from natal ascendant, Lagna Pada and the 7th from Upa Pada.
If there is conjunction of Saturn, Moon and Mercury in the 9th , there won’t be sons for the native. The son will be strong, valourous and successful if there is a conjunction of Sun, Jupiter and Rahu in the 9th.
If malefic Saturn and Rahu are in the 9th, predict no sons.
In case if Leo happens to be Upa Pada and is aspected by the Moon, predict limited number of children. Similarly, Virgo will have many daughters.
Other matters from Lagna Pada
Native will be evil if 6th from Lagna Pada is occupied by a malefic and is bereft of the good effects of a benefic.
If Rahu is in the 7th or 12th from Lagna Pada or aspects, the native will have spiritual qualities and also be very fortunate.
If Mercury, Jupiter or Moon in Lana Pada, the native will be Lord, knower of all things and a poet respectively.
Generally, if a benefic occupies the 2nd from Lagna, then the native will be blessed with all kinds of wealth and intelligence.
In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight the work of Rishi Parasara in the area of concept of Upa Pada and its significance.